Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (MOD)
Ministry%20of%20Defence%20Logo.png
Preceded by None
Country United Kingdom
Founded 1936
Abolished Active
Headquarters London, England
Head Secretary of State for Defence
Role Government Department
Affiliations Royal Navy
Parent Department UK Government
Succeeded by None
Ministry%20of%20Defence%20Flag.gif

The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The ministry is administered by the Secretary of State for Defence who is a member of the cabinet.

Table of Contents

1) History

The co-ordination of defence measures by a single minister was first attempted in 1936 when a Minister for the Co-ordination of Defence was appointed to assist the Prime Minister. The post was abolished in April 1940 and when Churchill became Prime Minister in May 1940 he assumed the additional title of Minister of Defence. Following a review of how the lessons learnt from wartime experience could be preserved and developed, the White Paper on Central Organisation for Defence (Cmd 6923) proposed the creation of a new post of Minister of Defence. The holder of the new post would be in charge of a Ministry and responsible to Parliament for the inter-relation of the three armed services and their supply. The Ministry of Defence Act, 1946, laid upon the minister the responsibility for 'the formulation and general application of a unified policy relating to the Armed Forces of the Crown as a whole and their requirements'. The Act received royal assent on 19 December 1946 and a Minister of Defence was appointed on 21 December 1946. The ministry was formally constituted on 1 January 1947.

Expansion of the Role of the Minister of Defence, 1957-1964
In 1957 it was announced that the Minister of Defence was to have increased authority to take decisions on matters of general defence policy affecting the size and shape, organisation and equipment of the Armed Forces, and this was confirmed in the White Paper on Central Organisation for Defence (Cmd 476) of July 1958. In July 1963, a similarly titled White Paper (Cmd 2097) proposed the establishment of a unified Ministry of Defence in which complete authority and responsibility for the Armed Forces would be invested in a single secretary of state. These proposals were given statutory authority under the Defence (Transfer of Functions) Act, 1964, the vesting date being 1 April 1964. From that date the Ministry of Defence, Department of Admiralty, War Office and Air Ministry were amalgamated, and arrangements were made for collaboration with the Ministry of Aviation. The Secretary of State now had complete control of both defence policy (there had previously been three cabinet places for single service ministers) and the machinery for the administration of the three services. The new unified ministry marked the start of a period which saw increasing pressure to improve efficiency and increase the effectiveness of the administrative functions of the Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defence. It was mostly organised on a joint rather than an 'integrated' or 'functional' basis in that sections of the Naval, Army and Air Staffs with similar responsibilities remained separate within their own departments, but were brought together in joint committees. The new organisation included three ministers of state who headed and implemented policy within the Navy Department, Army Department and Air Department. They also had responsibilities across the whole of the defence field for international policy, personnel and logistics, and research development and production, although they did not have executive responsibilities. They were assisted by three parliamentary under-secretaries of state. A Defence Secretariat was established in 1952 under the Permanent Under Secretary of State. The Chiefs of Staffs Committee was unchanged by the creation of the new ministry, and remained collectively responsible to the government for professional advice on military strategy and operations. The Naval, General and Air staffs of the Joint Service Staff of the pre-1964 ministry became the new Defence Staff, responsible to the Chiefs of Staff Committee. An expanded Defence Scientific Staff was established under the Chief Scientific Adviser who oversaw the work of two new committees, the Defence Research Committee and the Weapons Development Committee. Intelligence matters were completely integrated between the three services, under the Defence Intelligence Staff.

The Reorganisation of 1967 and beyond

1967 saw a re-organisation of the ministry aimed at moving towards a functional rather than service based structure. The three single service ministerial posts were replaced by two functional ministerial positions: Minister of Defence (Administration) responsible for managing personnel and logistics for the entire defence establishment. He was assisted by Chief Adviser, Personnel and Logistics. Minister of Defence (Equipment) responsible for managing research, development, production, procurement and sales. He was assisted by Chief Adviser (Projects), formerly the Chief Scientific Adviser. The positions of Head of Defence Sales and Deputy Under Secretary of State (Equipment) were created to assist the Minister of Defence (Equipment) in general questions of research and development, procurement and production and sales. The three single service second permanent under secretaries were replaced by two functional second permanent under secretaries, for administration and equipment, and ministerial responsibility for the single service departments was delegated to the parliamentary under secretaries of state. The Defence Staff was formed from the existing Naval, General, Air and Joint Service Staffs, and was responsible to the Chiefs of Staff Committee rather than the Chief of Defence Staff. The appointment of Deputy Under Secretary of State (Civilian Management), created a single civilian management organisation for all civilian staff. By this time rationalisation of many of the functions previously undertaken in isolation within each service had been centralised including financial control, civilian management, statistics and contracts but the process of rationalising the armed forces continued. In 1969 the Directorate for Statistics, Management Services, Accounts and Contracts was established. 1970 saw a new administration. During the previous six years there had been a shift to a more centralised Ministry, breaking away from the single service divisions in many areas. However, the new government moved to reverse this trend through the appointment of three single service Parliamentary Under Secretaries of State appointed under one minister of state. The new administration shifted the emphasis of UK Defence Policy towards maintaining the UK's overseas military presence outside NATO, and an increase in manpower and equipment. The additional responsibilities incurred by this change in policy led to a new drive to streamline the Ministry of Defence. In August 1971 the Procurement Executive was established under a Minister of State for Defence Procurement (this post was abolished at the end of 1972 when responsibility passed to the Minister of Defence). The new Executive provided for the integration of all defence research, development and production under a single minister. In 1972 the Directorate of Internal Audit was created and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment transferred into the Controllerate of Research and Development Establishments and Research. There was also a split from Civil Aviation research, which passed to the Department of Trade and Industry, but a Ministerial Aerospace Board attended by both secretaries of state was established to ensure communication between the two departments on aviation matters.

2) Head of Department

2.1) Minister for Co-ordination of Defence (1936–1940)

  1. Thomas Walker Hobart Inskip, 1st Viscount Caldecote (1936-1939)
  2. Alfred Ernle Montacute Chatfield, 1st Baron Chatfield (1939-1940)

2.2) Minister for Defence (1940-1964)

  1. Winston Churchill, (1940-1945) also Prime Minister
  2. Clement Attlee, (1945-1946) also Prime Minister
  3. A.V. Alexander, (1946-1950)
  4. Emanuel Shinwell, (1950-1951)
  5. Winston Churchill, (1951-1952) also Prime Minister
  6. Viscount Alexander of Tunis, (1952-1954)
  7. Harold Macmillan (1954-1955)
  8. Selwyn Lloyd, (April-December 1955)
  9. Sir Walter Monckton, (1955-1956)
  10. Antony Head, (1956-1957)
  11. Duncan Sandys, (1957-1959)
  12. Harold Watkinson, (1959-1962)
  13. Peter Thorneycroft, (1962-1964)

2.3) Secretary of State for Defence (1964-present)

  1. Peter Thorneycroft (April-October 1964)
  2. Dennis Healey (1964-1970)
  3. Peter Carrington (1970-1974)
  4. Ian Gilmour (January-March 1974)
  5. Roy Mason (1974-1976)
  6. Fred Mulley (1976-1979)
  7. Francis Pym (1979-1981)
  8. Jon Nott (1981-1983)
  9. Michael Hestletine (1983-1986)
  10. George Younger (1986-1989)
  11. Tom King (1989-1992)
  12. Malcom Rifkind (1992-1995)
  13. Michael Portillo (1995-1997)
  14. George Robertson (1997-1999)
  15. Geoff Hoon (1999-2005)
  16. John Reid (2005-2006)
  17. Des Browne (2006-2008)
  18. John Hutton (2008-2009)
  19. Bob Ainsworth (2009-2010)
  20. Liam Fox (2010-2011)
  21. Philip Hammond (2011-2014)
  22. Sir Michael Fallon (2014-2017)
  23. Gavin Williamson (2017-current)

3) Ministers of the Department

3.1) Minister of State for the Armed Forces (1983-current)

The Minister of State for the Armed Forces is a high-ranking ministerial position, subordinate only to the Secretary of State for Defence, at the Ministry of Defence in Her Majesty's Government.
Main Article: Minister of State for the Armed Forces

3.2) Minister for Defence Procurement (1967-current)

The Minister for Defence Procurement is a junior Defence minister in the Ministry of Defence of the British Government.

Main Article: Minister for Defence Procurement

3.3) Minister of State for Defence House of Lords (1964-current)

The minister is responsible for ceremonial duties, commemorations and Spokesman in the House of Lords on all defence matters.

Main Article: Minister of State for Defence House of Lords

3.4) Parliamentary Under Secretary of State and Minister for Defence People and Veterans

The minister is responsible for defence people and veterans.

Main Article: Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Defence and Minister for Defence People and Veterans

4) Senior Military Commanders of the Department

4.1) Chief of the Defence Staff (1959-current)

The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister.

  1. General Sir Nick Carter (2018-current)

Main Article: Chief of the Defence Staff

4.2) Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff (1964-current)

The Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS) is the deputy to the Chief of the Defence Staff. He is member of the Defence Council, Defence Board and Chiefs of Staff Committee

  1. General Sir Gordon Messenger RM (2016-current)

4.3) First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1917-current)

The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff is the professional head of the Royal Navy and HM Naval Service. He is a member of the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Admiralty Board and Navy Board.

  1. Admiral Sir Philip Jones (Head of the Royal Navy) 92016-current)

4.4) Chief of the Air Staff (1918-current)

The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force. He is member of the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board.

  1. Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier (Head of the Royal Air Force) (2016-current)

4.4) Chief of the General Staff (1904-current)

The Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964. He is a member of the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Army Board.

  1. General Mark Carleton-Smith (Head of the British Army) (2018-current)

+++4.5) Commander of Joint Forces Command (2012-current)
The Commander of Joint Forces Command, which manages allocated joint capabilities from the 3 armed services. The commander reports to the Chief of Defence Staff and, as a Top-Level Budget holder, is accountable to the Permanent Under Secretary of the MOD. He is a member of the Defence Council.

  1. General Sir Christopher Deverell (2016-current)

5) Civil Service Secretary's of the Department

5.1) Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence (1947-current)

The Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence (generally known as the Permanent Secretary) is the senior civil servant at the MOD. Their role is to ensure that it operates effectively as a government department and has responsibility for the strategy, performance, reform, organisation and the finances of the MOD. The post holder is jointly responsible with the Chief of the Defence Staff in leading the organisation and supporting Ministers in the conduct of business in the Department across the full range of responsibilities. They are both based at Head Office and Corporate Services within the MOD.

Main Article: Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence

4) Current Governance, Control, Direction and Policy

4.1) Defence Council

Defence is governed and managed by several committees. The Defence Council provides the formal legal basis for the conduct of defence in the UK through a range of powers vested in it by statute and Letters Patent. It too is chaired by the Secretary of State, and its members are ministers, the senior officers and senior civilian officials

Main Article: Defence Council of the United Kingdom

4.2) Defence Board

The Defence Board is the main MOD operational board chaired by the Secretary of State oversees the strategic direction and oversight of defence, supported by an Investment Approvals Committee, Audit Committee and People Committee.

Main Article: Defence Board

4.3) Executive Committee

The Executive Committee (ExCo) provides top level leadership across defence, as a Department of State. The Executive Committee meets fortnightly and includes the Head Office Directors General's.

4.4) Chiefs of Staff Committee

The Chiefs of Staff Committee (CSC) is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations. The committee consists of the Chief of the Defence Staff who is the chairman and professional head of the forces, the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff, who is the vice-chairman and deputy professional head of the armed forces. The Committee also consists of the professional heads of each branch of the armed forces: the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, the Chief of the General Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff.

Main Article: Chiefs of Staff Committee

5) Departmental Organisation

5.1) Head Office and Corporate Services

Head Office and Corporate Services (HOCS), which is made up of the Head Office and a range of corporate support functions. It has two joint heads the Chief of the Defence Staff and the Permamant Secretary who are the combined Top Level Budget Holders (TLB) this unit they are responsible for directing the other TLB holders.

Main Article: Head Office and Corporate Services

5.2) Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Armed Forces also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They also promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid.

Main Article: HM Armed Forces

Main Article Defence Staff

5.3) Service Boards

5.3.1) Admiralty Board

The Admiralty Board is the body established under the Defence Council of the United Kingdom for the administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom. It meets formally only once a year, and the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy is conducted by the Navy Board, which does not include any ministers. Prior to 1964 it was known as the Board of Admiralty part of the Department of Admiralty.

Main Article: Admiralty Board

5.3.2) Navy Board

The Navy Board is the body responsible for the day-to-day running of HM Naval Service. From 1576 until 1832 civil administration of HM Naval Service was vested in an earlier Navy Board. part of the Department of Admiralty.

Main Article: Navy Board

5.3.3) Army Board

The Army Board is the top single-service management committee of the British Army, and has always been staffed by senior politicians and soldiers. Until 1964 it was known as the Army Council part of the War Office.

Main Article: [[Army Board]]]

5.3.4) Air Force Board

The Air Force Board of the Defence Council is responsible for the management of the Royal Air Force. Prior to the creation of the current UK Ministry of Defence in 1964, the administration of the RAF and its personnel was undertaken by the Air Force Council, part of the Air Ministry.

Main Article: Air Force Board

Each Board is responsible for administering the three service commands headquarters.

5.4) Service Commands

The service commands are the operational head quarters for of the three services and are the primary financial accounting groups called TLB's They are controlled by the chief of staff responsible.

5.4.1) Air Command

Air Command Headquarters is the current headquarters body of the Royal Air Force, and its primary financial accounting grouping Navy Command TLB. Ar Command is controlled by the Chief of the Air Staff.

Main Article: Air Command

5.4.2) Army Command

Army Command is the current headquarters body of the British Army, and its primary financial accounting grouping Navy Command TLB. Army Command is controlled by the Chief of the General Staff.

Main Article: Army Command

5.4.3. Navy Command

Navy Command is the current headquarters body of the British Royal Navy, and its primary financial accounting grouping Navy Command TLB. Navy Command is controlled by the
First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff.

Main Article: Navy Command

5.4.4) Joint Forces Command

Joint Forces Command is the current headquarters body of the British Royal Navy, and its primary financial accounting grouping Navy Command TLB. Joint-Forces Command is controlled by the Commander, Joint Forces Command.

Main Article: Joint Forces Command

5.5) Former Departments

5.5.1) Air Department

5.5.2) Army Department

5.5.3) Navy Department

Main Article: Navy Department (MOD)

6) Support Organisations

6.1) Defence Business Services

DBS is an organisation within the UK Government's Ministry of Defence and is responsible for providing corporate services to the department.

Main Article:Defence Business Services

6.2) Defence Equipment and Support

Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S) is a trading entity and joint-defence organisation within the UK Ministry of Defence. It manages a vast range of complex projects to buy and support all the equipment and services that the Royal Navy, British Army and Royal Air Force need to operate effectively.

Main Article: Defence Equipment and Support

6.3) Defence Infrastructure Organisation

Defence Infrastructure Organisation (DIO) is an operating arm of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), in the United Kingdom, which is responsible for the built and rural estate. DIO manages around 1.8% of the UK's landmass, including 115,000 non-residential buildings and a 50,000 houses.

Main Article: Defence Infrastructure Organisation

6.4) Defence Intelligence

Defence Intelligence (DI) is an organisation within the United Kingdom intelligence community which focuses on gathering and analysing military intelligence. It differs from the UK's intelligence agencies (MI6, GCHQ and MI5) in that it is not a stand-alone organisation, but is an integral part of the Ministry of Defence (MoD). The organisation employs a mixture of civilian and military staff and is funded within the UK's defence budget. The organisation was formerly known as the Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS), but changed its name in 2009.

Main Article: Defence Intelligence

6.5) Defence Safety Authority

The Defence Safety Authority is an independent organisation, empowered by charter from SofS to undertake the roles of regulator, accident investigation and Defence Authority for safety.

Main Article: Defence Safety Authority

6.6) Information Systems and Services

Information Systems and Services (or Information Systems & Services or ISS) is a Cluster within the Joint Forces Command. Information Systems & Services provides the procurement and support functions for integrated information and communication services across the Armed Forces, the Ministry of Defence and to overseas bases, operations and ships.

Main Article: Information Systems and Services

7) Executive Non-Departmental Public Bodies

  1. National Museum of the Royal Navy
  2. National Army Museum
  3. Royal Air Force Museum
  4. Single Source Regulations Office (SSRO)

8) Defence High Education and Training

8.1) Defence Academy

The Defence Academy of the United Kingdom provides higher education for personnel in the British Armed Forces, Civil Service, other government departments and service personnel from other nations. It currently consists of 9 specialist higher education and training institutions. The academy provides a wide range of short and long courses ranging from awareness up to expert level covering five broad course themes: leadership; command; technology; business skills; and international engagement. It is administered by the Director General of the Defence Academy.

Main Article: Defence Academy

9) Sources

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Defence_(1947%E2%80%9364)
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Defence_(United_Kingdom)
  3. http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/Records of the Ministry of Defence Reference:DEFE

10) Attribution

  1. Logo of the Ministry of Defence: By Source, Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=43516384
  2. This article contains copied content from this source:http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/Records of the Ministry of Defence Reference:DEFE that is available under http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/.
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